Introduction of Electric Capacitor

Imagine if a car have 50 km per hour and we stopped it at an instant time. The car will be torn to pieces in a moment. Computers or the electrical and electronic devices we use contain this orderly movement of electrons between materials. We are turning on the device which means we are moving that electron. At first the electrons will slowly start moving at their speed and the device will turn on. The less time it takes for the device to turn on, we will say the better the performance of the raw material of that device. Researchers are working hard to increase this performance. Maybe this effort will never stop.

When we turn off our device, the electrons slowly return to their place and stop. But if these electrons, like our 50-kilometer car, were stopped in an instant, surely the electrons would drift away from their path in a moment, like a derailment of a train. The device must never be turned on again.

Then we must have a braking system so that the electrons do not have to stop in a moment like our car. But what can be done? If the switch is turned off, the power connection must be turned off immediately. We have no chance to turn off the switch slowly in our hands. We need to find another way.

There is a way. If we make a system so that our device will have an electroplating object. When we connect the power to our device, it will charge while the device is on. Then when we switch it off, the device will run for a while after receiving power from our charge holder. As the object will gradually run out of charge, so will our device. This will prevent instantaneous stoppage of electrons in our device. And we can do this using a small size and a specific voltage battery as needed.

The problem has been solved but some more complications remain. Suppose someone turns on a device and immediately turns it off again. What will happen next?

Since we have only kept the device running for a short time, our charge holder battery did not get a chance to be fully charged. So when our device is off, you will no longer get the help of this battery. What can be done?

There is a way. If we build our container or battery in such a way, it will be fully charged in a very short time. Only then can this problem be solved. The charge that will be in a very short time will be able to give it the desired voltage. We can do that. However, like the battery, the lifetime of this charge will be less. But we have no problem with that.

Like a battery, it is not a battery. Completely different from the battery. So we can give it another name. We do not call it a capacitor or a capacitor.

Even though different types of capacitors are used for different purposes nowadays, it would never have been possible to revolutionize our electronics without them.

Written

Jeion Ahmed

Electrical and Electronic Engineering (EEE)

Chittagong University of Engineering and Technology (CUET)